• Assistant Professor, Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development
  • Affiliated Faculty, Interdisciplinary Center for the Study of Global Change
  • Affiliated Faculty, Master's in Development Practice program
+1 612-625-2505
Org Leadership, Policy/Dev
178 Pillsbury Dr SE [map]
211B Burton Hall
Minneapolis, MN 55455-0226

ICI partner staff

Christopher Johnstone is an Assistant Professor of Comparative and International Development Education. In his research he explores operationalizations of inclusiveness as they relate to both international development, education, and campus internationalization. He has worked on education or development-related projects on every continent except Antarctica, but has primarily focused his research in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. His current projects include studies of livelihoods (Kenya and Tanzania), disability identity (India), and equity issues in internationalization (University of Minnesota).

Curriculum Vitae (pdf)



Understanding, Developing, and Supporting Meaningful Work for Youth with Disabilities in Bhutan: Networks, Communities, and Transitions

Supported the inclusive community employment of youth and young adults with disabilities in Bhutan, a mountainous kingdom in south central Asia. This research and development program collaborated …


Impact: Feature Issue on Disaster Preparedness and People with Disabilities

A newsletter issue addressing the need for greater inclusion of people with disabilities in disaster preparedness, response, and recovery efforts. When disasters occur people with disabilities are …

Published: Spring/Summer 2007

A State Guide to the Development of Universally Designed Assessments

A resource guide describing universal design for assessments -- an approach to educational assessment based on principles of accessibility for a wide variety of end users. Elements of universal …

Published: 2006

Universal Design Online Manual

A tool outlining steps that states can take to ensure universal design of assessments. The recommendations can be used for both computer and paper-based assessments. The authors recommend that …

Published: 2006

NCEO Synthesis Reports: A Principled Approach to Accountability Assessments for Students with Disabilities (#70)

A 2008 report updating the National Center on Educational Outcomes' (NCEO) report from 2001 that identified principles and characteristics underlying inclusive assessment and accountability …

Published: December 2008

NCEO Synthesis Reports: Universal Design Applied to Large Scale Assessments (#44)

The purpose of this report is to explore the development of universal design and to consider its application to large scale assessments.

Published: June 2002

NCEO Technical Reports: Student Think-Aloud Reflections on Comprehensible and Readable Assessment Items: Perspectives on What Does and Does Not Make an Item Readable (#48)

A document reporting on research related to large-scale assessments for students with learning disabilities in reading. The researchers examined the role of "readable and comprehensible" test …

Published: September 2007

NCEO Technical Reports: A Summary of Research on the Effects of Test Accommodations: 2002 through 2004 (#45)

This year 2006 report summarizes a review of 49 empirical research studies on test accommodations between 2002 and 2004.

Published: September 2006

NCEO Technical Reports: Using the Think Aloud Method (cognitive labs) to Evaluate Test Design for Students with Disabilities and English Language Learners (#44)

This year 2006 report describes a research study on think aloud methods used to detect design issues in large scale assessments.

Published: August 2006

NCEO Technical Reports: Considerations for the Development and Review of Universally Designed Assessments (#42)

This year 2005 report describes the development of a form for assessment designers to use to incorporate universal design features into assessments, based on an expert Delphi validation process.

Published: November 2005

NCEO Technical Reports: Analyzing Results of Large-Scale Assessments to Ensure Universal Design (#41)

This year 2005 report illustrates one method for determining whether assessment items are functioning differentially for students with disabilities compared to their peers without disabilities.

Published: July 2005

NCEO Technical Reports: State Literacy Standards, Practice, and Testing: Exploring Accessibility (#38)

This year 2004 report reviews state reading standards and analyzes the correspondence between reading standard requirements and alternative modes of student interaction with print.

Published: May 2004

NCEO Technical Reports: Improving Validity of Large-Scale Tests: Universal Design and Student Performance (#37)

This year 2003 report presents the theoretical background and research results of an experimental study conducted using universally designed assessment features.

Published: December 2003

NCEO Policy Directions: Using Systematic Item Selection Methods to Improve Universal Design of Assessments (#18)

This year 2006 report provides an overview of assessment item selection methods that optimize universal design and makes recommendations.

Published: September 2006

NCEO State Surveys: 2005 State Special Education Outcomes - Steps Forward in a Decade of Change

This year 2003 report summarizes a survey to states addressing accommodations, participation rates and performance of students with disabilities in statewide assessments.

Published: November 2005

NCEO Brief: Don't Forget Accommodations! Five Questions To Ask When Moving to Technology-based Assessments (#1)

A brief -- the first in a series for the Race to the Top Assessment Consortia -- addressing the need to think carefully about accommodations when moving from paper-based assessments to technology- …

Published: April 2011

PARA Accessible Reading Assessment Reports: What Do State Reading Test Specifications Specify?

A report examining state assessment blueprints or test specifications for state reading assessments. The No Child Left Behind Act requires all states to assess student reading, but each state is …

Published: June 2007

NCEO Technical Reports: Rules for Audio Representation of Science Items on a Statewide Assessment: Results of a Comparative Study (#64)

A report describing a study that investigated an online auditory feature of an assessment designed to provide students who have challenges with print reading with content information. Large-scale …

Published: June 2012

NCEO Synthesis Reports: Results of a Cognitive Interview Study of Immediate Feedback and Revision Opportunities for Students with Disabilities in Large Scale Assessments (#92)

A report covering a study that was part of a larger research project originally designed to investigate an approach to Alternate Assessments with Modified Achievement Standards that provides …

Published: December 2013

TARA Reports: Students with Visual Impairments and Assistive Technology: Results from a Cognitive Interview Study in Five States

The purpose of this study was to better understand use of assistive technology in instruction and assessment by students with visual impairments. The aim was to gather information that would be …

Published: August 2009

TARA Reports: Survey of Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments: Students Served and Their Access to State Assessments of Reading

The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of teachers on a number of aspects related to reading. This survey targeted specifically teachers of students with visual impairments ( …

Published: August 2009

TARA Reports: Field-based Perspectives on Technology Assisted Reading Assessments: Results of an Interview Study with Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments (TVIs)

The purpose of this study was to gather information to inform the design and development of a technology-assisted reading assessment for students with visual impairments or blindness.

Published: August 2009

A State Guide to the Development of Universally Designed Assessments

Test design strategies for accurately measuring the knowledge and skills of a diverse student population from test conceptualization and item construction, to field-testing, item reviews, statewide…

Published: 2006-09-01

Inclusive Education Strategies: A Toolkit for Armenia

This toolkit was designed by faculty and staff from the University of Minnesota and Armenian State Pedagogical University (ASPU) in the Republic of Armenia to help educators to include students …

Published: 2019

Universal Design Online Manual

Steps that states can take to ensure universal design of computer and paper-based assessments. Including any step in the design and review of tests may improve the design features of a state …

Published: 2006-09-01

Disability-Inclusion Resources for Employment, Coaching, and Training

The Online Resource and Learning Center was developed by experts in the US, UK and Bhutan as part of an international collaborative titled Understanding, Developing, and Supporting Meaningful Work for Youth with Disabilities in Bhutan: Networks, Communities, and Transitions. This resource is designed to support the socio-economic inclusion of persons with disabilities in low and middle income countries. The online modules cover the topics of Inclusive Employment, Transition and Work-Based Learning, and Self-Determination and Self-Advocacy, among others.

Published: 4/12/2021

Inclusive Education Strategies: A Textbook

This textbook is a resource for implementing inclusive education practices in Armenia, other post-Soviet countries, and countries on the path to a more inclusive education and society. The content …

Published: 2018

Disability-Inclusive Education, Development, and Dialectics: Complex Cases in Bhutan

Disability-inclusive education and development have become priorities for global governance organizations over the past decade and have thus introduced new complexities to existing development …

Published: 2023

NCEO Reports: An Updated State Guide to Universally Designed Assessments (#431)

This Guide is an update to the State Guide to Universally Designed Assessments that was originally published by NCEO in 2006. It provides a brief overview of what a universally designed assessment …

Published: February 2022