Direct Support Professional and Frontline Supervisor Perspectives on Work-Life in a Pandemic 


Direct support professionals (DSPs) and frontline supervisors (FLSs) play an invaluable role in delivering home and community-based services to people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). DSPs provide support with employment, community living, developing social connections, health and well-being, and many other areas. FLSs' primary responsibility is to provide direction and guidance to DSPs in their work; however, they also frequently provide direct support to people with IDD. This workforce has been in crisis with high turnover and vacancy which threaten the inclusion of individuals with disabilities in their communities. The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated an already fraught situation.

Suggested Citation

Hall, S. A., Anderson, L. L., Pettingell, S. L., Zhang, A., Bershadsky, J., Hewitt, A., & Smith, J. (2022). Direct support professional and frontline supervisor perspectives on work-life in a pandemic. Inclusion, 10(4), 314–326.


Peer-Reviewed Article 
American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities


  • Direct support workforce
    • Retention and recruitment
  • Health and safety
    • Emergency/disaster preparedness