Policy Research Brief: Predictors of Annual Turnover Among Direct Support Professionals


This brief contains findings from a recent study that was a first of its kind to look at both organizational- and state-level factors related to turnover among direct support professionals (DSP), using data from the National Core Indicators (NCI) Staff Stability Survey. The study showed that factors associated with higher annual turnover are not limited to the organizations that employ DSPs, but also include state-level policies and factors that may be beyond the organization’s control.

Organizational factors, such as offering higher hourly wages and health insurance benefits, were significant predictors of lower annual DSP turnover. State-level factors that predicted  lower annual DSP turnover included a higher proportion of people in a given state receiving services in individual settings and very small group homes, plus higher per-capita Medicaid spending.  

High turnover among DSP is a well-documented and increasingly critical issue. Provider organizations cannot solve the problem themselves. Solutions and interventions must include strategies at both the organizational- and state-level.

Suggested Citation

Oteman, Q. (2021, September). Predictors of annual turnover among direct support professionals. Retrieved from https://publications.ici.umn.edu/community-living/prb/28-3/main


September 2021 
Volume 28, Number 3
Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota