Using Mixed Methods to Evaluate Modified Schema-Based Instruction in General Education Classrooms



In this convergent mixed methods design study, single-subject and qualitative data were collected concurrently to provide an in-depth picture of the impact of a modified schema-based instructional intervention. The intervention was delivered using instructional trials embedded across general education math lessons and a modified concrete-semi-concrete-abstract instructional sequence. This study investigated the impact of the intervention on the word-problem-solving, strategy use, and concept acquisition of three students with extensive support needs. The paraprofessional-delivered intervention was implemented in elementary general education mathematics classrooms using embedded instruction and focused on teaching students to solve addition and subtraction word-problems. Single-subject data indicated that all three students learned to solve word-problems given concrete materials but needed more time to master the use of semi concrete supports. Qualitative data indicated that students used taught and untaught strategies to solve word-problems, and mastered addition word-problems before subtraction when they were taught simultaneously. Data were integrated in narrative format to explore how strategy use and concept acquisition related to student word-problem-solving performance. Limitations and implications for research are discussed.

Suggested Citation

Bowman, J. A., McDonnell, J., Karp, K., Coleman, O. F., Clifton, C., Conradi, L. A., Ryan, J., & Farrell, M. (2024). Using Mixed Methods to Evaluate Modified Schema-Based Instruction in General Education Classrooms. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities.


Peer-Reviewed Article 
SAGE Publications, Inc.