1% Toolkit: Disproportionality in the Alternate Assessment Calculator: A Tool for State and Local Education Agencies (NCEO Tool #12)


This Brief explains a tool that State and Local Education Agencies (SEAs and LEAs) can use to examine disproportionality with respect to student group participation in their alternate assessment aligned to alternate academic achievement standards (AA-AAAS). Examining disproportionality with regard to alternate assessment participation is essentially an inquiry into whether certain groups are over- or under-identified as having a most significant cognitive disability. Participation data for groups of interest (e.g., race/ethnicity, economically disadvantaged, English learner status, chronic absenteeism) can be entered for a SEA or LEA. The tool then calculates the risk ratio, which is a way to describe the relationship of observed versus expected proportions.


January 2023 
Tool or Toolkit 
Number 12
National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO)


  • Educational accountability and assessment
    • Assessment Participation
    • Students with Disabilities
    • Alternate Assessments