Long-term supports and services (LTSS) facilitate a person’s full participation in daily tasks such as dressing, bathing, and eating; household activities such as shopping, cooking, and cleaning; money management; work; physical and emotional health and well-being; personal interests such as volunteering or worship; developing and maintaining relationships; and making everyday choices and major life decisions. Effective supports respect individual choice and preferences, are provided when they are needed in just the amount needed, and support the person’s active participation in all aspects of the task or activity. LTSS can be provided wherever a person lives, works, or spends time and can be provided by family members, friends, or other paid or unpaid direct support workers. Paid LTSS may be funded by the person, his or her family, an insurance carrier, or a government entity. This entry reviews the history of LTSS for people with intellectual or developmental disabilities (ID/DD) and various types of LTSS.

Suggested Citation

Larson, S. A. (2018). Long-Term Supports and Services. In E. Braaten (Ed.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of Intellectual and Developmental Disorders (pp. 969–970).


Book Chapter 
Sheryl A Larson or +1 612-624-6024
SAGE Publications, Inc.