PARA Accessible Reading Assessment Reports: Accessible Reading Assessments for Students with Disabilities: The Role of Cognitive, Grammatical, Lexical, and Textual/Visual Features

Jamal Abedi, Seth Leon, Jenny Kao, Robert Bayley, Nancy Ewers, et. al.


A study examining the characteristics of reading test items that may differentially impede the performance of students with disabilities. By examining the relationship between select item features and performance, the study seeks to inform strategies for increasing the accessibility of reading assessments for individuals from this group. The results of this study can help the assessment community in two ways. First, by elaborating on some test accessibility features, this report may serve as a guideline for those who are involved in test development and the instruction and assessment of students with disabilities. Second, and more importantly, this report provides methodology for examining other features that may have a major impact on assessment outcomes for students with disabilities.


November 2010 
Partnership for Accessible Reading Assessment (PARA)
National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO)


  • Specific life stage
    • Children
    • Adolescents and young adults
  • Educational accountability and assessment
    • Accessibility & Accommodations