Connecting to Success link to home page
click here to skip navigation
start of navigation
Program Overview
Background Information
About E-mentoring
Benefits to Participants
The Training Manual
Related Research
Related Links
Partners in the Program
The following links are to support participants
Information for Participating Site Coordinators
Information for Participating Teachers
Information for Participating Employers
Information for Participating Employer Liaisons
Information for Participating Mentors
Information for Participating Students
end of navigation

Supports for Participating Employers

Employer's Digest

Related Reading and Research

This page contains information regarding related research and literature that support the Connecting to Success program. Links followed by "(PDF)" take you to a PDF file that requires Adobe Acrobat Reader to view.

Many organizations and individuals have documented the value and efficacy of traditional and electronic mentoring. The positive effects that are established by well-run mentoring program can be far-reaching and meaningful. The following is a wide-ranging listing of important research and documentation of mentoring practices that have contributed to our developed model.


Mentoring Research

Beier, S. R., Rosenfeld, W. D., Spitalny, K. C., Zansky, S. M., & Bontempo, A. N. (2000). The potential role of an adult mentor in influencing high-risk behaviors in adolescents (PDF). Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 154, 327-331.
The authors find a strong positive relationship between young people having an adult mentor and decreased participation in certain risk behaviors.

Dubois, D. L., Holloway, B. E., Valentine, J. C., & Cooper, H. (2002). Effectiveness of mentoring programs for youth: A meta-analytical review. American Journal of Community Psychology, 301, 157-197.
The authors review 55 evaluations of the effects of mentoring programs on youth. They find that programs with "best practices" offer the most effectiveness in producing positive outcomes. Recommendations for greater adherence to good design and follow-up assessment are made.

Foster, L. (2001). Effectiveness of mentor programs--review of the literature from 1995 to 2000 (PDF). Sacramento, CA: California Research Bureau.
In this report, the author reviews research done on mentoring programs for youth and makes recommendations for strengthening programs in California agencies. More stringent program evaluation and better funding are two major findings.

Grossman, J. B. (Ed.). (1999). Contemporary issues in mentoring. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.
In this large report, the authors detail research done at the national level related to mentoring adolescents in various milieus. They discuss cost, outcomes, best practices, model programs, and assessment.

Herrera, C. (1999). School-based mentoring: A first look into its potential. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.
The author describes the alternative programs sponsored by Big Brothers/Big Sisters that focus on school-based relationships instead of its traditional home-based models. She finds that school-based mentoring has valuable components that benefit participants in many ways.

Herrera, C., Sipe, C. L., & McClanahan, W. S. (2000). Mentoring school age children: relationship development in community-based and school-based programs. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.
In this report, the authors explore volunteers' experiences and relationship development in community and school-based mentoring programs. They find that there are specific benchmarks that indicate whether a given program is effective and they detail conclusions and implications for effective practices.

Jackson, Y. (2002). Mentoring for delinquent children: An outcome study with young adolescent children. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31, 115-122.
The author details a study of thirteen delinquent adolescents who took part in time-intensive mentoring relationships with undergraduate student volunteers (as part of a practicum). Parents of the young people reported significant improvement in behavior as a result of these relationships. Teachers gave mixed reviews when it came to the youths' behavior.

Philip, K., & Hendry, L. B. (1996). Young people and mentoring--towards a typology? Journal of Adolescence, 19, 189-201.
The authors explore young people's perceptions of mentoring relationships and develop some conclusions based on their research. They find benefits in these relationships in different realms and that mentoring can work in both formally designed and less formal situations.

Rhodes, J. E., Grossman, J. B., & Resch, N. L. (2000). Agents of change: Pathways through which mentoring relationships influence adolescents' academic achievement. Child Development, 71, 1662-1671.
The authors find that youth who participate in Big Brothers/Big Sisters mentoring relationships generally have improved relationships with parents and have improved attendance in school when compared to youth who applied to the program but were unable to participate due to lack of mentoring volunteers.

Sipe, C. L. (1996). Mentoring: A synthesis of P/PV's research: 1988-1995. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.
In this report, the author summarizes eight years of research done by the non-profit group Public/Private Ventures in the field of mentoring. She finds that the relative ease of developing a mentoring relationship should lead to its greater use to foster youth development.

Thompson, L. A., & Kelly-Vance, L. (2001). The impact of mentoring on academic achievement of at-risk youth. Children and Youth Services Review, 23, 227-241.
The authors studied the academic growth of twenty-five adolescent boys, twelve of whom had "Big Brothers" -- the other thirteen were on a waiting list. They found that the mentored boys had significantly greater academic progress than the others.

Tierney, J., Grossman, J. B., & Resch, N. L. (2000). Making a difference: An impact study of Big Brothers/Big Sisters. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.
The authors detail a study of Big Brothers/Big Sisters and mentorship relationships in the early 1990's. They find reliable evidence of significant positive impact on youth with adult mentors.

Mentoring Practices and Issues Related to Disabilities

Campbell-Whatley, G. D. (2001). Mentoring students with mild disabilities: The nuts and bolts of program development. Intervention in School and Clinic, 36, 211-216.
The author describes how mentoring programs positively impact students with disabilities. She also gives guidelines for developing mentoring programs for these students.

DeRosenroll, D., Saunders, G., & Carr, R. A. (1993). The Canadian Stay-In-School Mentor Strategy Program Resource Development Kit. Victoria, BC, Canada: Peer Systems Consulting Group.
This large manual details the model mentoring program used in western Canada in youth-at-risk programs in the early 1990's. It contains historical perspective, assessment resources, and useful sample forms used in programming.

Gramlich, M. P. (1999). How to facilitate workplace mentoring: A guide for teachers to support employers and student workers. Rockford, MD: TransCen, Inc.
This guidebook gives detailed strategies and resources for developing mentoring programs for youth in transition into vocational opportunities.

Mecca, A. M. (1999). The mentoring revolution: Growing America one child at a time. Tiburon, CA: California Mentor Foundation.
This book is a compilation of the history of mentoring children in California with a great deal of resources and strategies for mentoring programs.

Moccia, R. E., Schumaker, J. B., Hazel, J. S., Vernon, D. S., & Deshler, D. D. (1989). A mentor program for facilitating the life transitions of individuals who have handicapping conditions. Reading, Writing, and Learning Disabilities, 5, 177-195.
The authors detail a model demonstration project set up to help high school students with learning disabilities by pairing them with adult mentors. Initial results indicate positive effects on graduation rates and enrollment in postsecondary schools.

National Mentoring Center. (n.d.). On-line learning and tutorials.
The National Mentoring Center has numerous resources connected to their Web site. These pages discuss assessing agency needs prior to starting ementoring programs and ways to develop Web sites in conjunction with ementoring.

Rogers, A. M., & Taylor, A. S. (1997). Intergenerational mentoring: A viable strategy for meeting the needs of vulnerable youth. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 28, 125-140.
The authors detail two programs--Linking Lifetimes and Across Ages--that connect at-risk early adolescents with older adults (usually over fifty-five) in mentoring relationships. They discuss the many roles that older mentors can fill with these youth: companion, social supporter, teacher, role model, challenger, and resource supporter.

Sipe, C. L., & Roder, A. E. (1999). Mentoring school-age children: A classification of programs.
This executive summary of a survey done in 1996 details many of the newer mentoring programs (and their components) that began in the U. S. during the mid 1990's. Many similarities and differences in relation to BBBS programs are cited.

The University of Texas at Austin Service Leader Project. (n.d.). Virtual Volunteering Project.
This Web site is designed to help organizations and individuals that are interested in developing volunteer opportunities that can be completed in whole or in part using the Internet. Much of the information includes resources related to e-mentoring.

Wighton, D. J. (1993). Telementoring: An examination of the potential for an educational network.
This author gives an early outline of how he envisioned that Telementoring might look as used by teachers and students in the early 1990s. Most of his insights were related to college students as mentees but much of his assertions are applicable today in working with youth.

Mentoring and Juvenile Justice

Grossman, J. B., & Garry, E. M. (1997). Mentoring--a proven delinquency prevention strategy (PDF).
This bulletin describes the Public/Private Ventures study on the effect of Big Brothers/Big Sisters mentoring program and how it can produce positive behaviors when compared to non-participants. The authors also describe the JUMP (Juvenile Mentoring Program) that was in its initial stages when the bulletin was prepared.

Jones-Brown, D. D., & Henriques, Z. W. (1997). Promises and pitfalls of mentoring as a juvenile justice strategy. Social Justice, 24, 212-234.
In this article, the authors show that certain mentoring programs are more feasible than boot camps or adult courts in reducing the risk of involvement in crime for at-risk youths. They site the JUMP program and Big Brothers/Big Sisters as model programs.

National Center on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice. (n.d). Publications Page.
This Web site contains numerous publications on the topic of education, disability, and juvenile justice.

Novotney, L. C., Mertinko, E., Lange, J., & Baker, T. K. (2000). Juvenile mentoring program: A progress review.
This bulletin describes preliminary findings from the OJJPD's Juvenile Mentoring Program (JUMP). Findings indicate positive results in mentoring relationships when measuring school achievement, abstinence from drugs and alcohol, and avoidance of violence.

Stephens, R. D., & Arnette, J. L. (2000). From the courthouse to the schoolhouse: Making successful transitions.
This bulletin describes effective approaches to identifying strategies for enhancing services to youth who are in the judicial system and trying to return to the educational system. This bulletin contains information about mentoring.

The Task Force on Employment and Training for Court-Involved Youth. (2000). Employment and training for court-involved youth: Strategies and promising programs for court-involved youth.
This chapter of a longer Department of Justice Report details critical influences that are necessary for adjudicated youth to have success in the labor market.

U. S. Department of Justice. (1998). Juvenile Mentoring Program--1998 report to Congress. Washington, D. C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
This report to congress details the first five years of the JUMP program and how its grants to various states and non-profit agencies have produced positive behaviors in at-risk youth.

Issues Related to Electronic Mentoring

Bennett, D., Hupert, N., Tsikalas, K., Meade, T., & Honey, M. (1998). Critical issues in the design and implementation of telementoring environments (PDF).
The authors describe the necessary components for e-mentoring programs in school settings.

E-mentoring clearinghouse. (n.d.). Mentors online -- the e-mentoring tool kit from
This site has an extensive introduction to e-mentoring and gives detailed instruction for designing an e-mentoring program.

Harris, J., O'Bryan, E., & Rotenberg, L. (1996). It's a simple idea, but it's not easy to do: Practical lessons in telementoring (PDF).
The authors detail model telementoring projects that they were involved in and give information and resources that can assist others who have programs of their own.

Moen, D. (n.d.). Cargill/Olson e-mentoring program--Evaluation report 1999-2000. Minneapolis: Youth Trust.
This study details the third and fourth year of a model e-mentoring program begun in 1997 at Olson Middle School in Minneapolis. Youth Trust is a non-profit organization that connects schools, employers, and community resources.

O'Neill, D. K. (2001). Building social capital in a knowledge-building community: Telementoring as a catalyst (PDF).
The author presented details of projects he has worked on with students, teachers, and other knowledgeable adults in inquiry-based classroom projects. He found that students benefit from long-term relationships with mentors over the Internet and that recruiting more adults for such roles may not be as difficult as surmised.

O'Neill, D. K., Abeygunawardena, H., Perris, K, & Punja, Z. (2000). The telementor's guidebook: A field guide to supporting student inquiry on-line (PDF). Final report of Office of Learning Technologies project #89116. Ottawa: Human Resources Development Canada.
This guidebook details a model program used to connect students involved in inquiry-based learning to experts in related fields. The range and depth of benefits in mentoring is outlined.

O'Neill, D. K. & Harris, J. B. (2000). Is everybody happy? Bridging the perspectives and developmental needs of participants in telementoring programs (PDF).
The authors presented findings related to telementoring and the positive effects it creates in certain classroom curriculums. They show that long-term relationships with mentors over the Internet are more beneficial for students than some other forms of short-term adult contact.

Perez, S. (2001). Enhancing youth achievement through telementoring. Journal of School Health, 71, 122-123.
The author gives a brief description of what telementoring is and lists ten Web sites that provide information and program models for telementoring.

Sanchez, B. & Harris, J. (1996, May). Online mentoring: A success story (PDF).
The authors detail a successful e-mentoring program, the Electronic Emissary Project that began in 1993. The program connected school-aged children with subject matter experts to set up curriculum-based exchanges among experts, students, and teachers.

Single, P. B., & Muller, C. B. (n.d.). Electronic mentoring programs: A model to guide best practice and research (PDF).
The authors give a detailed summary of electronic mentoring program practices. They have a stronger business perspective but elements may be transferred to programs connected to schools also.

Wheeldon, R. S. & Lehmann, J. P. (1999). Establishing a telementoring program that can be used in vocational classes. The Journal for Vocactional Special Needs Education, 21, 32-37.
The authors detail the telementoring program setup between a rural Colorado high school and Hewlett Packard in the late 1990's. The students involved had mild or moderate learning disabilities.

Youth Trust. (n.d.). Multi-year evaluation highlights of e-mentoring programs.
This short study details the model e-mentoring program begun in 1997 at Olson Middle School in Minneapolis. Youth Trust is a non-profit organization that connects schools, employers, and community resources.

Publications from the National Mentoring Center

The National Mentoring Center is part of the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. The Center publishes related research and practice reports related to mentoring on a regular basis. For a complete and up-to-date list of publications available, go to the National Mentoring Center Publications page.

Top of Page

Overview   Background   About E-mentoring   Participant Benefits   Training Manual
Related Research   Related Links   Partners   Become An Affiliate   Home
Participant Supports:
Coordinators   Teachers   Employers   Employer Liaisons   Mentors   Students

Bobby v5.0 Approved for Accessibility© 2001-2010 The Regents of the University of Minnesota
The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer

Online Privacy Policy

This page was last updated December 16, 2009.