This page contains information regarding related research and literature
that support the Connecting to Success program. Links followed
by "(PDF)" take you to a PDF file that requires Adobe
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Many organizations and individuals have documented the value and efficacy of traditional and electronic mentoring. The positive effects that are established by well-run mentoring program can be far-reaching and meaningful. The following is a wide-ranging listing of important research and documentation of mentoring practices that have contributed to our developed model.
Beier, S. R., Rosenfeld, W. D., Spitalny, K. C., Zansky, S. M.,
& Bontempo, A. N. (2000). The
potential role of an adult mentor in influencing high-risk behaviors in
adolescents (PDF). Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine,
The authors find a strong positive relationship between young people having an adult mentor and decreased participation in certain risk behaviors.
Dubois, D. L., Holloway, B. E., Valentine, J. C., & Cooper, H.
(2002). Effectiveness of mentoring programs for youth: A meta-analytical
review. American Journal of Community Psychology, 301, 157-197.
The authors review 55 evaluations of the effects of mentoring programs on youth. They find that programs with "best practices" offer the most effectiveness in producing positive outcomes. Recommendations for greater adherence to good design and follow-up assessment are made.
Foster, L. (2001). Effectiveness
of mentor programs--review of the literature from 1995 to 2000
(PDF). Sacramento, CA: California Research Bureau.
In this report, the author reviews research done on mentoring programs for youth and makes recommendations for strengthening programs in California agencies. More stringent program evaluation and better funding are two major findings.
Grossman, J. B. (Ed.). (1999). Contemporary issues in mentoring.
Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.
In this large report, the authors detail research done at the national level related to mentoring adolescents in various milieus. They discuss cost, outcomes, best practices, model programs, and assessment.
Herrera, C. (1999). School-based
mentoring: A first look into its potential. Philadelphia: Public/Private
The author describes the alternative programs sponsored by Big Brothers/Big
Sisters that focus on school-based relationships instead of its traditional
home-based models. She finds that school-based mentoring has valuable
components that benefit participants in many ways.
Herrera, C., Sipe, C. L., & McClanahan, W. S. (2000). Mentoring
school age children: relationship development in community-based and school-based
Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.
In this report, the authors explore volunteers' experiences and relationship
development in community and school-based mentoring programs. They find
that there are specific benchmarks that indicate whether a given program
is effective and they detail conclusions and implications for effective
Jackson, Y. (2002). Mentoring
for delinquent children: An outcome study with young adolescent children.
Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31, 115-122.
The author details a study of thirteen delinquent adolescents who took part
in time-intensive mentoring relationships with undergraduate student volunteers
(as part of a practicum). Parents of the young people reported significant improvement
in behavior as a result of these relationships. Teachers gave mixed reviews
when it came to the youths' behavior.
Philip, K., & Hendry, L. B. (1996). Young people and mentoring--towards
a typology? Journal of Adolescence, 19, 189-201.
The authors explore young people's perceptions of mentoring relationships and
develop some conclusions based on their research. They find benefits in these
relationships in different realms and that mentoring can work in both formally
designed and less formal situations.
Rhodes, J. E., Grossman, J. B., & Resch, N. L. (2000). Agents of change: Pathways through which mentoring relationships influence adolescents' academic achievement. Child Development, 71, 1662-1671.
The authors find that youth who participate in Big Brothers/Big Sisters mentoring
relationships generally have improved relationships with parents and have improved
attendance in school when compared to youth who applied to the program but were
unable to participate due to lack of mentoring volunteers.
Sipe, C. L. (1996). Mentoring:
A synthesis of P/PV's research: 1988-1995. Philadelphia: Public/Private
In this report, the author summarizes eight years of research done by the non-profit
group Public/Private Ventures in the field of mentoring. She finds that the
relative ease of developing a mentoring relationship should lead to its greater
use to foster youth development.
Thompson, L. A., & Kelly-Vance, L. (2001). The impact of mentoring
on academic achievement of at-risk youth. Children and Youth Services Review,
The authors studied the academic growth of twenty-five adolescent boys, twelve
of whom had "Big Brothers" -- the other thirteen were on a waiting
list. They found that the mentored boys had significantly greater academic progress
than the others.
Tierney, J., Grossman, J. B., & Resch, N. L. (2000). Making
a difference: An impact study of Big Brothers/Big Sisters.
Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.
The authors detail a study of Big Brothers/Big Sisters and mentorship
relationships in the early 1990's. They find reliable evidence of significant
positive impact on youth with adult mentors.
Mentoring Practices and Issues Related to Disabilities
Campbell-Whatley, G. D. (2001). Mentoring
students with mild disabilities: The nuts and bolts of program development.
Intervention in School and Clinic, 36, 211-216.
The author describes how mentoring programs positively impact students with disabilities. She also gives guidelines for developing mentoring programs for these students.
DeRosenroll, D., Saunders, G., & Carr, R. A. (1993). The Canadian Stay-In-School Mentor Strategy Program Resource Development Kit. Victoria, BC, Canada: Peer Systems Consulting Group.
This large manual details the model mentoring program used in western Canada in youth-at-risk programs in the early 1990's. It contains historical perspective, assessment resources, and useful sample forms used in programming.
Gramlich, M. P. (1999). How to facilitate workplace mentoring: A
guide for teachers to support employers and student workers. Rockford,
MD: TransCen, Inc.
This guidebook gives detailed strategies and resources for developing mentoring programs for youth in transition into vocational opportunities.
Mecca, A. M. (1999). The mentoring revolution: Growing America one child at a time. Tiburon, CA: California Mentor Foundation.
This book is a compilation of the history of mentoring children in California with a great deal of resources and strategies for mentoring programs.
Moccia, R. E., Schumaker, J. B., Hazel, J. S., Vernon, D. S., & Deshler, D. D. (1989). A mentor program for facilitating the life transitions of individuals who have handicapping conditions. Reading, Writing, and Learning Disabilities, 5, 177-195.
The authors detail a model demonstration project set up to help high school students with learning disabilities by pairing them with adult mentors. Initial results indicate positive effects on graduation rates and enrollment in postsecondary schools.
National Mentoring Center. (n.d.). On-line
learning and tutorials.
The National Mentoring Center has numerous resources connected to their Web site. These pages discuss assessing agency needs prior to starting ementoring programs and ways to develop Web sites in conjunction with ementoring.
Rogers, A. M., & Taylor, A. S. (1997). Intergenerational mentoring:
A viable strategy for meeting the needs of vulnerable youth. Journal of
Gerontological Social Work, 28, 125-140.
The authors detail two programs--Linking Lifetimes and Across Ages--that connect
at-risk early adolescents with older adults (usually over fifty-five) in mentoring
relationships. They discuss the many roles that older mentors can fill with
these youth: companion, social supporter, teacher, role model, challenger, and
Sipe, C. L., & Roder, A. E. (1999). Mentoring
school-age children: A classification of programs.
This executive summary of a survey done in 1996 details many of the
newer mentoring programs (and their components) that began in the U. S. during
the mid 1990's. Many similarities and differences in relation to BBBS programs
The University of Texas at Austin Service Leader Project. (n.d.).
Virtual Volunteering Project.
This Web site is designed to help organizations and individuals that
are interested in developing volunteer opportunities that can be completed in
whole or in part using the Internet. Much of the information includes resources
related to e-mentoring.
Wighton, D. J. (1993). Telementoring:
An examination of the potential for an educational network.
This author gives an early outline of how he envisioned that Telementoring
might look as used by teachers and students in the early 1990s. Most of his
insights were related to college students as mentees but much of his assertions
are applicable today in working with youth.
Mentoring and Juvenile Justice
Grossman, J. B., & Garry, E. M. (1997). Mentoring--a
proven delinquency prevention strategy (PDF).
This bulletin describes the Public/Private Ventures study on the effect of Big Brothers/Big Sisters mentoring program and how it can produce positive behaviors when compared to non-participants. The authors also describe the JUMP (Juvenile Mentoring Program) that was in its initial stages when the bulletin was prepared.
Jones-Brown, D. D., & Henriques, Z. W. (1997). Promises
and pitfalls of mentoring as a juvenile justice strategy. Social
Justice, 24, 212-234.
In this article, the authors show that certain mentoring programs are
more feasible than boot camps or adult courts in reducing the risk of involvement
in crime for at-risk youths. They site the JUMP program and Big Brothers/Big
Sisters as model programs.
National Center on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice. (n.d). Publications Page.
This Web site contains numerous publications on the topic of education, disability, and juvenile justice.
Novotney, L. C., Mertinko, E., Lange, J., & Baker, T. K. (2000).
mentoring program: A progress review.
This bulletin describes preliminary findings from the OJJPD's Juvenile
Mentoring Program (JUMP). Findings indicate positive results in mentoring relationships
when measuring school achievement, abstinence from drugs and alcohol, and avoidance
Stephens, R. D., & Arnette, J. L. (2000). From
the courthouse to the schoolhouse: Making successful transitions.
This bulletin describes effective approaches to identifying strategies
for enhancing services to youth who are in the judicial system and trying
to return to the educational system. This bulletin contains information
The Task Force on Employment and Training for Court-Involved Youth.
and training for court-involved youth: Strategies and promising programs
for court-involved youth.
This chapter of a longer Department of Justice Report details critical
influences that are necessary for adjudicated youth to have success in
the labor market.
U. S. Department of Justice. (1998). Juvenile
Mentoring Program--1998 report to Congress. Washington, D. C.:
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
This report to congress details the first five years of the JUMP program
and how its grants to various states and non-profit agencies have produced
positive behaviors in at-risk youth.
Issues Related to Electronic Mentoring
Bennett, D., Hupert, N., Tsikalas, K., Meade, T., & Honey,
M. (1998). Critical
issues in the design and implementation of telementoring environments
The authors describe the necessary components for e-mentoring programs
in school settings.
E-mentoring clearinghouse. (n.d.). Mentors
online -- the e-mentoring tool kit from Mentoring.org.
This site has an extensive introduction to e-mentoring and gives detailed
instruction for designing an e-mentoring program.
Harris, J., O'Bryan, E., & Rotenberg, L. (1996). It's
a simple idea, but it's not easy to do: Practical lessons in telementoring
The authors detail model telementoring projects that they were
involved in and give information and resources that can assist others
who have programs of their own.
Moen, D. (n.d.). Cargill/Olson e-mentoring program--Evaluation report 1999-2000. Minneapolis: Youth Trust.
This study details the third and fourth year of a model e-mentoring
program begun in 1997 at Olson Middle School in Minneapolis. Youth Trust is
a non-profit organization that connects schools, employers, and community resources.
O'Neill, D. K. (2001). Building
social capital in a knowledge-building community: Telementoring as a catalyst
The author presented details of projects he has worked on with students,
teachers, and other knowledgeable adults in inquiry-based classroom projects.
He found that students benefit from long-term relationships with mentors over
the Internet and that recruiting more adults for such roles may not be as difficult
O'Neill, D. K., Abeygunawardena, H., Perris, K, & Punja, Z. (2000).
The telementor's guidebook:
A field guide to supporting student inquiry on-line (PDF). Final report
of Office of Learning Technologies project #89116. Ottawa: Human Resources Development
This guidebook details a model program used to connect students involved
in inquiry-based learning to experts in related fields. The range and
depth of benefits in mentoring is outlined.
O'Neill, D. K. & Harris, J. B. (2000). Is
everybody happy? Bridging the perspectives and developmental needs of participants
in telementoring programs (PDF).
The authors presented findings related to telementoring and the positive
effects it creates in certain classroom curriculums. They show that long-term
relationships with mentors over the Internet are more beneficial for students
than some other forms of short-term adult contact.
Perez, S. (2001). Enhancing youth achievement through telementoring. Journal of School Health, 71, 122-123.
The author gives a brief description of what telementoring is and lists ten Web sites that provide information and program models for telementoring.
Sanchez, B. & Harris, J. (1996, May). Online
mentoring: A success story (PDF).
The authors detail a successful e-mentoring program, the Electronic
Emissary Project that began in 1993. The program connected school-aged
children with subject matter experts to set up curriculum-based exchanges
among experts, students, and teachers.
Single, P. B., & Muller, C. B. (n.d.). Electronic
mentoring programs: A model to guide best practice and research
The authors give a detailed summary of electronic mentoring program
practices. They have a stronger business perspective but elements may
be transferred to programs connected to schools also.
Wheeldon, R. S. & Lehmann, J. P. (1999). Establishing a telementoring program that can be used in vocational classes. The Journal for Vocactional Special Needs Education, 21, 32-37.
The authors detail the telementoring program setup between a rural Colorado high school and Hewlett Packard in the late 1990's. The students involved had mild or moderate learning disabilities.
Youth Trust. (n.d.). Multi-year
evaluation highlights of e-mentoring programs.
This short study details the model e-mentoring program begun in 1997 at Olson Middle School in Minneapolis. Youth Trust is a non-profit organization that connects schools, employers, and community resources.
Publications from the National Mentoring Center
The National Mentoring Center is part of the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. The Center publishes related research and practice reports related to mentoring on a regular basis. For a complete and up-to-date list of publications available, go to the National Mentoring Center Publications page.
For further information, please contact Joe Timmons at 612-624-5659 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
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